Your Technical Connection: Base Station
“Integrated RFICs and our high-power transistors can help you lower overall base station costs.”
- — Oleh, Design Engineering Manager
- — Craig, Senior Member Technical Staff
- High Voltage, High Efficiency HBTs for 3G and 4G Amplifiers
Microwave Journal, Sept 2007
- TriQuint Set to Deliver Record-Efficiency PAs
Compound Semiconductor Online, December, 2008
by Andy Extance; ©2008 Compound Semiconductor Online
- High Performance 28 V InGaP HBT Power Amplifiers
Microwave Journal, Sept 2006, p 152
- The Safe Operating Area of GaAs-Based Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
- Reliability Study of InGaP/GaAs HBT for 28V Operation
- A Metric for the Quantification of Memory Effects in Power Amplifiers
IEEE third party paper
- Averaging and Cancellation Effect of High-Order Nonlinearity of a Power Amplifier
- 28V High-Linearity and Rugged InGaP/GaAs Power HBT
- Choosing The Proper RF Amplifier Based On System Requirements
RF Globalnet and Wireless Design Magazine
- Understanding The Performance Of RF Amplifiers Used In Base Station Applications
RF Globalnet and Wireless Design Magazine
UMTS-FDD is designed to operate in the following paired bands:
|Operating Band||Freq. Band||Common Name||UL Freq. UE> transmit (MHz>)||DL Freq. UE receive (MHz)||Channel Number
|I||2100||IMT||1920 - 1980||2110 - 2170||9612 - 9888||10562 - 10838||Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania (Telstra, Optus, Vodafone AU, Three Mobile AU, Vodafone NZ), Brazil|
|II||1900||PCS||1850 - 1910||1930 - 1990||9262 - 9538 additional 12, 37, 62, 87, 112, 137, 162, 187, 212, 237, 262, 287||9662 - 9938 additional 412, 437, 462, 487, 512, 537, 562, 587, 612, 637, 662, 687||Americas (AT&T, Bell Mobility, Telcel, Telus,Rogers)|
|III||1800||DCS||1710 - 1785||1805 - 1880||937 - 1288||1162 - 1513||Europe, Asia, Oceania|
|IV||1700||AWS||1710 - 1755||2110 - 2155||1312 - 1513 additional 1662, 1687, 1712, 1737, 1762, 1787, 1812, 1837, 1862||1537 - 1738 additional 1887, 1912, 1937, 1962, 1987, 2012, 2037, 2062, 2087||USA (T-Mobile, Cincinnati Bell Wireless), Canada (WIND Mobile, Mobilicity,Videotron), Chile (VTR,Nextel)|
|V||850||CLR||824 - 849||869 - 894||4132 - 4233 additional 782, 787, 807, 812, 837, 862||4357 - 4458 additional 1007, 1012, 1032, 1037, 1062, 1087||Americas (AT&T, Bell Mobility, Telcel, Telus,Rogers), Oceania (Telstra, Telecom NZ)|
|VI||800||830 - 840||875 - 885||4162 - 4188 additional 812, 837||4387 - 4413 additional 1037, 1062||Japan (NTT DoCoMo)|
|VII||2600||IMT-E||2500 - 2570||2620 - 2690||2012 - 2338 additional 2362, 2387, 2412, 2437, 2462, 2487, 2512, 2537, 2562, 2587, 2612, 2637, 2662, 2687||2237 - 2563 additional 2587, 2612, 2637, 2662, 2687, 2712, 2737, 2762, 2787, 2812, 2837, 2862, 2887, 2912||Europe (future)|
|VIII||900||GSM||880 - 915||925 - 960||2712 - 2863||2937 - 3088||Europe, Asia, Oceania (Optus, Vodafone AU, Vodafone NZ), Dominican Republic (Orange), Venezuela (Digitel GSM)|
|IX||1700||1749.9 - 1784.9||1844.9 - 1879.9||8762 - 8912||9237 - 9387||Japan (E Mobile, NTT DoCoMo)|
|X||1700||1710 - 1770||2110 - 2170||2887 - 3163 additional 3187, 3212, 3237, 3262, 3287, 3312, 3337, 3362, 3387, 3412, 3437, 3462||3112 - 3388 additional 3412, 3437, 3462, 3487, 3512, 3537, 3562, 3587, 3612, 3637, 3662, 3687|
|XI||1500||1427.9 - 1447.9||1475.9 - 1495.9||3487 - 3562||3712 - 3787||Japan (Softbank)|
|XII||700||SMH||698 - 716||728 - 746||3612–3678 additional 3702, 3707, 3732, 3737, 3762, 3767||3837–3903 additional 3927, 3932, 3957, 3962, 3987, 3992||USA (future) (lower SMH blocks A/B/C)|
|XIII||700||SMH||777 - 787||746 - 756||3792–3818 additional 3842, 3867||4017–4043 additional 4067, 4092||USA (future) (upper SMH block C)|
|XIV||700||SMH||788 - 798||758 - 768||3892–3918 additional 3942, 3967||4117–4143 additional 4167, 4192||USA (future) (upper SMH block D)|
|Band||TS 25.101 DL to UL Freq. Separation (MHz)||TS 25.101 Center Freq. Range (MHz)||TS 25.101 UARFCN Equation||TS 25.101 UARFCN Range||Test Set "DL Channel" Range|
|I (IMT-2000)||190||2112.4 - 2167.6, increment = 0.2||5 * (center freq in MHz)||10562 - 10838||10562 - 10838|
|II(U.S. PCS)||80||1932.4 - 1987.6, increment = 0.2||5 * (center freq in MHz)||9662 - 9938||9662 - 9938|
|1932.5 - 1987.5, increment = 5||5 * ((center freq in MHz) - 1850.1 MHz)||412, 437, 462, 487, 512, 537, 562, 587, 612, 637, 662, 687||412, 437, 462, 487, 512, 537, 562, 587, 612, 637, 662, 687|
|III(DCS/PCS)||95||1807.4 - 1877.6, increment = 0.2||5 * ((center freq in MHz) - 1575 MHz)||1162 - 1513||1162 - 1513|
|IV||400||2112.4 - 2152.6, increment = 0.2||5 * ((center freq in MHz) - 1805 MHz)||1537 - 1738||1537 - 1738 *|
|2112.5 - 2152.5, increment = 5||5 * ((center freq in MHz) - 1735.1 MHz)||1887, 1912, 1937, 1962, 1987, 2012, 2037, 2062, 2087||1887, 1912, 1937, 1962, 1987, 2012, 2037, 2062, 2087 *|
|V(US Cellular)||45||871.4 - 891.6, increment = 0.2||5 * (center freq in MHz)||4357 - 4458||4357 - 4458 #|
|871.5, 872.5, 876.5, 877.5, 882.5, 887.5||5* ((center freq in MHz) - 670.1 MHz)||1007, 1012, 1032, 1037, 1062, 1087||1007, 1012, 1032, 1037, 1062, 1087 #|
|VI(Japan 800)||45||877.4 - 882.6, increment = 0.2||5 * (center freq in MHz)||4387 - 4413||4387 - 4413 +|
|877.5, 882.5||5 * ((center freq in MHz) - 670.1 MHz)||1037, 1062||1037, 1062 +|
|VII||120||2622.4 - 2687.6, increment = 0.2||5 * ((center freq in MHz) - 2175 MHz)||2237 - 2563||2237 - 2563|
|2622.5 - 2687.5, increment = 5||5 * ((center freq in MHz) - 2105.1 MHz)||2587, 2612, 2637, 2662, 2687, 2712, 2737, 2762, 2787, 2812, 2837, 2862, 2887, 2912||2587, 2612, 2637, 2662, 2687, 2712, 2737, 2762, 2787, 2812, 2837, 2862, 2887, 2912|
|VIII||45||927.4 - 957.6, increment = 0.2||5 * ((center freq in MHz) - 340 MHz)||2937 - 3088||2937 - 3088|
|IX||95||1847.4 - 1877.4, increment = 0.2||5 * (center freq in MHz)||9237 - 9387||9237 - 9387 *|
|X||400||2112.4 - 2167.6, increment = 0.2||5 * ((center freq in MHz) - 1490 MHz)||3112 - 3388||3112 - 3388 *|
|2112.5 - 2167.5, increment = 5||5 * ((center freq in MHz) - 1430.1 MHz)||3412, 3437, 3462, 3487, 3512, 3537, 3562, 3587, 3612, 3637, 3662, 3687||3412, 3437, 3462, 3487, 3512, 3537, 3562, 3587, 3612, 3637, 3662, 3687 *|
Deployment in other frequency bands is not precluded.
UMTS-TDD is designed to operate in the following bands:
|Frequencies (MHz)||Channel Number (UARFCN)|
|1900 - 1920||9512 - 9588|
|2010 - 2025||10062 - 10113|
|1850 - 1910||9262 - 9538|
|1930 - 1990||9662 - 9938|
|1910 - 1930||9562 - 9638|
|2570 - 2620||12862 - 13088|
Frequency bands deployment
In general, the various UMTS bands are deployed as follows:
- Band I (W-CDMA 2100) in Europe, India, Africa, Asia, Australia (all carriers' metropolitan networks), New Zealand (ITU Region 1) and Brazil (part of ITU Region 2)
- Band II (W-CDMA 1900) in North America and South America (ITU Region 2).
- Band IV (W-CDMA 1700 or Advanced Wireless Services) in the United States (T-Mobile USA) and Canada (WIND Mobile, Mobilicity and Vidéotron)
- Band V (W-CDMA 850) in Australia (Telstra NextG Network), Thailand (True move and DTAC), New Zealand (XT Mobile Network), Brazil, Canada, the USA, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Venezuela, other parts of South America, Israel, parts of Asia (ITU Region 2 and ITU Region 3), Poland (Sferia/Aero2 - hspa+ internet only)
- Band VIII (W-CDMA 900) in Europe, Asia, Australia (Optus and Vodafone regional/country 3G networks), New Zealand (ITU Region 1 and ITU Region 3), Thailand (Advanced Info Service) and Venezuela (Digitel GSM)
Today, most mobiles support multiple bands as used in different countries to facilitate roaming. These are typically referred to as multi-band phones. Dual-band phones can cover networks in pairs such as 2100/900 (bands I/VIII) in Europe, Middle East, Asia, Oceania or 1900/850MHz (bands II/V) in North and South America. With the recent release of AWS spectrum (band IV) in North America, the dual-band combo of 1700/2100 is also becoming popular there.
Roaming in Europe works well since all operators use the same bands. In the US this is not really the case. European/Asian tri-band phones typically cover the 900, 1900 and 2100MHz bands giving good coverage in Europe and allowing very limited use in North America, while North American tri-band phones utilize 850, 1900 and 2100MHz for widespread North & South American service and good coverage for worldwide use thanks to the popularity of the 2100MHz spectrum. AWS versions of phones support normally 900/1700/2100 allowing for North American coverage on AWS enabled networks and roaming coverage on 2100MHz and on forthcoming 900MHz overlays in Europe and Asia.
Most UMTS phones also operate on GSM as well, supporting EDGE to ensure data coverage where HSPA still lacks coverage. Note however, that while a phone may have overlapping GSM & UMTS frequency support, being tri-band/quad-band in GSM/GPRS/EDGE does not imply the same support for UMTS, as was the case with many early 2100MHz-only UMTS devices.
Late 2010 there started appearing devices supporting majority of currently used UMTS bands. One of such devices is Samsung Galaxy Tab which uses Infineon PMB 5703 UMTS/EDGE RF transceiver chip. Currently shipping versions of Tab only allow to display the supported bands, but not change them. The USSD code used is *#2263#.
"UMTS frequency bands." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 8 December 2010, 21:55.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UMTS_frequency_bands >
Included here on 30 December 2010
TriQuint offers a complete portfolio of RF power devices, small signal RFICs as well as RF and IF filter technology. Our technology portfolio includes the recent acquisition of WJ Communications product line-up, complementing the latest process advancements in GaAs, SAW and BAW.
For an overview of these products, please see our
TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc. has teamed with industry leader Modelithics, Inc. to provide high-accuracy simulation models for a number of base station RF components. Access TriQuint models by clicking on the ‘MVP’ icon below. For more information about TriQuint products use the links on this page; click here to contact TriQuint product marketing. Please click the Modelithics logo to access that company’s website.
TriPower™ HV-HBT High-Power Transistors Offer Breakthrough Efficiency
Network operators and the manufacturers who design and build their radio systems are faced with a dilemma: how to meet the ever-increasing demand for high-speed, high-capacity connectivity while lowering operational costs. The TriPower™ family of RFICs addresses these key concerns with breakthrough efficiency and linearity that supports the complex requirements of 3G/4G deployments. Operating in a systemic Doherty configuration, two TriQuint TG2H214120-FL 120 Watt devices can deliver over 60 Watts of average WCDMA power with 55% collector efficiency, the highest available. Our new TriPower devices are also easily linearized with conventional Digital Pre-Distortion (DPD) techniques, making them ideal for the RF designer. TriQuint's two new high-efficiency TriPower devices, [TG2H214120-FL (120W) and TG2H214220-FL (220W)] are the first in a series of products that will include more frequency bands and power levels. A growing TriPower family will expand the 'green' impact of this technology globally to different cellular systems.
Find out more about the benefits of TriPower's Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) high voltage hetero junction bipolar transistor (HV-HBT) technology and how TriQuint's devices deliver the highest efficiency in comparison with other base station high-power transistor technologies. In addition to higher efficiency, TriPower also enables tower-mounted remote radio head designs, effectively helping network operators increase capacity through larger amplifiers without a corresponding increase in size or weight. Higher-power amplifiers, in turn, deliver higher data rates to all users in the cell.
|TriPower™ – High Efficiency 3G/4G Innovation
A product overview with specifications and power savings.
|HVHBT Doherty and Envelope Tracking PAs for High Efficiency
WCDMA and WiMAX Base Station Applications
By: Craig Steinbeiser, Thomas Landon, Gary Burgin, Oleh Krutko, Jeremy Haley, Preston Page, Don Kimball and Peter Asbeck
(© 2009 TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc.; All rights reserved.)
|High Efficiency WCDMA Envelope Tracking Base Station
Amplifier Implemented with GaAs HVHBTs
By: Donald Kimball, Myoungbo Kwak, Paul Draxler, Jinseong Jeong, Chin Hsia, Craig Steinbeiser, Thomas Landon, Oleh Krutko, Larry Larson, Peter Asbeck (© 2008 IEEE; All rights reserved.)
Whether a network operator is expanding coverage areas or initiating new service, system efficiency plays a critical role. Traditional gantry or monopole base stations are being replaced by smaller, high-efficiency plants that use remote radio head (RRH) technology. Remote radio heads can reduce real estate expenses, are more efficient, can be deployed more easily and offer inherent maintenance advantages. RRH components need to meet increasingly stringent size and efficiency goals in addition to established standards for reliable, virtually continuous operation unique to the base station environment.
TriQuint solutions enable the customer to spend less time / design energy on individual component issues, which frees them to focus on system performance.
Integration Levels Support BTS Evolution:
Devices that offer high gain and integrated matching. These products enable designers to eliminate one or more levels of gain in their line-ups without external matching circuitry, benefitting size and cost considerations.
Devices that integrate multiple functions in one package for overall size reduction, such as placing a multi-stage amplifier or mixer with a LO buffer amplifier. These products enable system size reduction.
Devices that combine two amplifier stages with interstage matching. They eliminate the need for external matching circuitry between amplifiers while reducing system cost and size.
These products offer full in-package integration. By combining two amplifiers, a digital step attenuator, all matching components, bias chokes, plus bypass and blocking capacitors, these modules deliver a 50 Ohm solution that lowers cost and is more compact.
Contact TriQuint product marketing to discover more about the ways that TriQuint uses integration to simplify RF connectivity.
TriQuint and Scintera Offer Linearized PA Solution for 3G / 4G Small Cells
TriQuint and Scintera have developed a design-ready solution to power small cell 3G / 4G / LTE base stations. This solution combines TriQuint Semiconductor off-the-shelf RF broadband amplifier ICs and advanced linearization techniques from Scintera to offer base station OEMs a means to address the data requirements of capacity-stressed WCDMA networks, as well as satisfy 4G / LTE data rate needs.The solution is designed to support all major global cellular bands including 700, 900, 2100 and 2600 MHz. Unlike traditional base stations which typically employ a 28V technology, the TriQuint / Scintera solution is the first to use a 12V power amplifier.
|Figure 1: The TriQuint / Scintera solution utilizes a more cost-efficient 12V input supply while enabling fast-to-market RF strategies for small cell base stations.|
This factor can reduce power consumption as well as save space within the housing by eliminating higher voltage converters.
This small cell solution combines Scintera’s SC1869 RF power amplifier linearizer with TriQuint’s broadband TQP7M9103 and AP561-F. Delivering 2 Watts (33dBm) of linear output power, the solution can support single or multiple carriers up to 20 MHz (total signal bandwidth) for all major cellular bands. Network operators see small cell base stations as a cost-effective way to support 3G / 4G / LTE data rates. “This innovation simplifies RF connectivity by leveraging market-tested solutions and reducing power consumption while also using the same broadband RFICs across multiple bands,” said TriQuint Vice President, Brian P. Balut.
|TriQuint’s portion of the linearized transmitter system consists of the TQP7M9103 driver stage followed by AP561-F power amplifier.TriQuint’s TQP7M9103 and AP561-F provide a design-ready amplification solution with broadband coverage across all 3G / 4G frequency bands. Key specifications of the two devices are noted below.
• 400 to 4000 MHz
• +29.5dBm P1dB
• +45dBm output IP3
• 16.5dB gain @ 2140 MHz
• +5V single supply, 235mA current
• Internal RF overdrive protection
• Internal DC overvoltage protection
• On-chip ESD protection
• SOT-89 package
• Up to 20 MHz instantaneous signal bandwidth
Figure 2: Scintera’s evaluation board shows the SC1869: 2.5x 2.5cm; no delay. Its SC1889: 2.5x3.6cm, provides printed delay. Both devices provide 4-layer design.
Figure 3: TriQuint’s TQM7M9103 and AP561-F are suitable for linearized systems and wide signal bandwidth. Scintera’s SC1869 solution provides greater than 17dB of correction in adjacent channel with 1111 4-carrier WCDMA 7.8dB PAR signal at a center frequency of 2.14 GHz. The solution is designed for 2W Paverage and supports all global cellular frequencies with up to 20 MHz of instantaneous signal bandwidth.